The Church ruled over many European territories, not just the Papal States. There were dozens of prince-bishopsin the former Holy Roman Empire, now Germany and some surrounding countries. For instance, the picturesque little town of Dinant in modern Belgium was ruled by Prince-Bishop of Liège. Naturally, where a cleric reigned, a concordat between the pope and the ruler was not necessary.
King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands found himself in an increasingly insecure position. Because he favoured the Dutch language and Calvinism of his Northern Provinces he was viewed with suspicion by his Catholic French-speaking subjects in the Southern Provinces. This concordat, concluded shortly before they rebelled against him, looks like an attempt to buy the support of the Church.