For over 900 years, concordats have proven so effective that they have formed the cornerstone of Vatican diplomacy. It all began with the Concordat of London. After Pope Alexander II blessed the Norman Invasion of England in 1066, he secured a quarter of the kingdom. However, when his successor, Gregory VII, further demanded that William the Conqueror pay fealty, this was firmly rebuffed. And when the papal legate of Paschal II tried to rule the country, he was chased out. However, the third bid for control proved successful when in 1107 Paschal finally managed to get the English to sign the world’s first concordat.
For more than four centuries this Vatican concordat bound England. But in 1534 when King Henry VIII made the Church of England the state religion, the concordat became a dead letter. Today the state church that replaced Catholicism still fields 26 bishops in the House of Lords of the United Kingdom. These Lords Spiritual and have the same voting privileges as the Lords Temporal and if they disapprove of a law passed by the elected members of the lower house, they can help to scuttle it.
They exercise this power over the laws of the whole UK, even though only England has a state church. "The Church of England is not the established Church of the United Kingdom. The Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920, in Northern Ireland there has not been an established Church since 1871 and the Church of Scotland Act 1921 acknowledged that the Kirk had never been the established Church of Scotland and so could not be disestablished." (Nia Griffith, House of Commons debate, 10 July 2002)
The Church of England lives with the threat of future disestablishment, as it is now a minority religion. By 2011 weekly attendance at Church of England services had dwindled to about two percent of the population, leaving the churches largely empty. And five years later a survey found that fewer than one in five people in England and Wales even identified with the state church. However, this shrinking, highly unrepresentative and very privileged church is also extremely wealthy. Among the Church of England's assets is an investment portfolio listed in its annual report for 2012 to be £5.5 billion pounds.
The agenda set forth in Gregory VII's secret memo, the Papal Dictation of 1075, finally bore fruit in the Concordat of London. Here are records of all three papal attempts to get control of Britain:
♦ Pope's demand of fealty rejected by William the Conqueror (text, c. 1075)
The Church taught that prayers could help save souls and also that they could be farmed out to holy men ― for a price. This gave the pope the leverage to acquire a quarter of the land in England, for the prayers of the clerics were seen as indispensible for king and country. Even William the Conqueror begs the pope: “Pray for us, and for the well-being of our realm”. Here is a short, revealing excerpt from Professor Terry Jones.
After the Norman Conquest the Archbishop of York secured bishoprics in most of Scotland and this drew it under the 1107 Concordat of London. Then in 1188 the Scottish Church came under the pope. Only the islands of Orkney and Shetland remained part of the Norwegian bishopric, and this continued even after 1266 when the Norse king lost political control. Thus they were bound by the 1277 Norwegian Concordat until the Scottish church was formed in 1472.
Even the earliest charter of civil rights was condemned by the papacy. This was the Magna Carta Libertatum or The Great Charter of the Liberties of England. Pope Innocent III had declared King John to be his vassal, and now "his" vassal had, without papal authorisation, granted rights to his subjects. The pope therefore considered the Magna Carta to be interference with his ownership of England and proclaimed it invalid ― "forever."
England has several different kinds of ecclesiastical courts. These use religious law, such as the Islamic sharia, Jewish halakha and Christian canon law. Church of England courts are now restricted to internal church matters, but not the others. In 2012 a bill was put before the UK parliament that would forbid sharia courts to claim official sanction as arbitration tribunals.
What did the Pope’s September 2010 trip cost Britain? Between the announcement of the Pope’s first state visit to Britain until he arrived half a year later, the projected costs that were acknowledged rose by about a half, while the Government tried to keep secret other expenses, including the enormous security bill. British taxpayers were obliged to foot most of the bill for a ceremony to move a 19th-century theologian one step closer to sainthood ― in the midst of brutal government austerity cuts. And to help pay for the Pope’s visit the UK Government quietly diverted money meant for the world’s poorest people.